In this Iranian hospital-based case-control study, 47 cases with incident esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and 96 controls were interviewed and usual dietary intakes were collected using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The results showed ESCC cases consumed significantly more hot foods and beverages and fried and barbecued meals, compared to the controls. After adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of ESCC increased significantly in the highest tertiles of saturated fat, cholesterol, discretionary calorie, sodium and total fat intakes. In contrast, being in the highest tertile of carbohydrate, dietary fiber and omega-3 fatty acid intake reduced the ESCC risk by 78%, 71% and 68%, respectively. The most cancer-protective effect was observed for the combination of high folate and vitamin E intakes. Controls consumed 623.5 times higher selenium, 5.48 times as much β-carotene and 1.98 times as much α-tocopherol as the amount ESCC cases consumed.
Jessri M, Rashidkhani B, Hajizadeh B, Jessri M, Gotay C. Macronutrients, vitamins and minerals intake and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study in Iran. Nutr J. 2011 Dec 20;10:137.