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30 September 2011

Aerobic exercise effective for reducing abdominal fat

In a study of 196 overweight individuals, aerobic exercise was found to be the most time efficient and effective exercise to reduce measures of visceral fat, fatty liver infiltration and improve fasting insulin resistance (HOMA) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Participants were randomized into one of the following eight-month exercise training groups: 1) resistance training (RT): 3 days per week, 8 exercises, 3 sets/exercise, 8-12 repetitions/set, 2) aerobic training (AT): equivalent to ~19.2 km per week at 75% peakVO2, 3) full aerobic training plus full resistance training (AT/RT). AT led to significant reductions in liver fat, visceral fat, ALT, HOMA and both total and subcutaneous abdominal fat. RT resulted in a decrease in subcutaneous abdominal fat, but did not significantly improve the other variables. AT was more effective than RT at improving visceral fat, liver to spleen ratio, total abdominal fat and trended towards a greater reduction in liver fat score. The effects of AT/RT were statistically indistinguishable from AT.

Slentz CA, Bateman LA, Willis LH, Shields AT, Tanner CJ, Piner LW, Hawk VH, Muehlbauer MJ, Samsa GP, Nelson RC, Huffman KM, Bales C, Houmard JA, Kraus WE. The Effects of Aerobic versus Resistance Training on Visceral and Liver Fat Stores, Liver Enzymes and HOMA from STRRIDE AT/RT: A Randomized Trial. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Aug 16. [Epub ahead of print]

29 September 2011

Multi-nutrient supplement benefits middle-aged men and women

This study examined the effect of a multi-nutrient supplement on inflammatory status, endothelial function, physical function, and mood in 31 healthy active middle-aged men and women. The multi-nutrient supplement contained: folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin B5, taurine, l-leucine, isoleucine, valine, Cat's Claw extract, Green tea extract, Grape extract and quercitin. Multi-nutrient supplementation was found to be effective in improving inflammatory status and energy levels in both men and women, markers of pain, joint pain, strength, and power in men only, and both anxiety and balance in women. The authors conclude "Therefore, a multi-nutrient supplement may help middle-aged individuals to prolong physical function and maintain a healthy, active lifestyle".

Dunn-Lewis C, Kraemer WJ, Kupchak BR, Kelly NA, Creighton BA, Luk HY, Ballard KD, Comstock BA, Szivak TK, Hooper DR, Denegar CR, Volek JS. A multi-nutrient supplement reduced markers of inflammation and improved physical performance in active individuals of middle to older age: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr J. 2011 Sep 7;10(1):90. [Epub ahead of print]

28 September 2011

Apples and pears may lower risk of stroke

Recent research suggests a high intake of white fruits and vegetables may protect against stroke. An intake of more than 171g of white fruits and vegetables daily was found to lower risk of stroke incidence by 52%. Each 25g increase in white fruit and vegetable consumption daily was associated with a 9% lower risk of stroke. Apples and pears were the most commonly consumed white fruit and vegetables (55%).

Oude Griep LM, Verschuren WM, Kromhout D, Ocké MC, Geleijnse JM. Colors of Fruit and Vegetables and 10-Year Incidence of Stroke. Stroke. 2011 Sep 15. [Epub ahead of print]

27 September 2011

Exercising 15 minutes daily associated with life expectancy benefits

In a search to find the minimum amount of physical activity to have life expectancy benefits, researchers  assessed the health benefits of a range of volumes of physical activity in 416,175 Taiwanese men and women. Compared with individuals in the inactive group, those in the low-volume activity group, who exercised for an average of 92 min per week or 15 min a day, had a 14% reduced risk of all-cause mortality, and had a 3 year longer life expectancy. Every additional 15 min of daily exercise beyond the minimum amount of 15 min a day further reduced all-cause mortality by 4% and all-cancer mortality by 1%. These benefits were applicable to all age groups and both sexes, and to those with cardiovascular disease risks. Individuals who were inactive had a 17% increased risk of mortality compared with individuals in the low-volume group. The authors comment "If the minimum amount of exercise we suggest is adhered to, mortality from heart disease, diabetes, and cancer could be reduced. This low-volume of physical activity could play a central part in the global war against non-communicable diseases, reducing medical costs and health disparities".

Wen CP, Wai JP, Tsai MK, Yang YC, Cheng TY, Lee MC, Chan HT, Tsao CK, Tsai SP, Wu X. Minimum amount of physical activity for reduced mortality and extended life expectancy: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 2011 Aug 14. [Epub ahead of print]

26 September 2011

Red Clover isoflavone supplementation effectively reduces menopausal symptoms

In a study involving 109 postmenopausal women, Red Clover isoflavone supplementation was more effective than placebo in reducing daily vasomotor (hot flush and night sweat) frequency and overall menopausal symptom intensity. Participants were assigned to randomly receive either 80 mg red clover isoflavones or placebo for 90 days. After a washout period of 7 days, medication was crossed over and taken for 90 days more. The results showed menopausal symptoms significantly decreased in the Red Clover group compared to placebo.

Lipovac M, Chedraui P, Gruenhut C, Gocan A, Kurz C, Neuber B, Imhof M. The effect of red clover isoflavone supplementation over vasomotor and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2011 Aug 26. [Epub ahead of print]

25 September 2011

Low sodium intake linked to better cognitive performance in older adults

This study examined the association between sodium intake and its interaction with physical activity on cognitive function over 3 years in older adults residing in Québec, Canada. The results found low physical activity participants with a low sodium intake displayed better cognitive performance over time compared with the highest and mid sodium intake groups. The authors comment "sodium intake reduction especially in low physical activity older aldults, may further improve brain health in late life".

Fiocco AJ, Shatenstein B, Ferland G, Payette H, Belleville S, Kergoat MJ, Morais JA, Greenwood CE. Sodium intake and physical activity impact cognitive maintenance in older adults: the NuAge Study. Neurobiol Aging. 2011 Aug 18. [Epub ahead of print]

24 September 2011

Plantar fasciitis improves with acupuncture

Plantar fasciitis commonly causes heel pain and occurs in up to 10% of the US population. Treatment protocols in most studies include the use of ice therapy, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and stretching and strengthening protocols. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of 2 different therapeutic approaches on the treatment of plantar fasciitis in recreational athletes. A total of 38 participants with plantar fasciitis were randomly allocated to 2 different groups of 19 male participants in each group. Group 1 was treated with ice, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and a stretching and a strengthening program. Group 2 received the same therapeutic procedures as group 1, reinforced by acupuncture treatment. After 8 weeks of treatment, the acupuncture group showed greater improvement compared with the first group. The authors conclude "Acupuncture should be considered as a major therapeutic instrument for the decrease of heel pain, combined with traditional medical approaches".

Karagounis P, Tsironi M, Prionas G, Tsiganos G, Baltopoulos P. Treatment of plantar fasciitis in recreational athletes: two different therapeutic protocols. Foot Ankle Spec. 2011 Aug;4(4):226-34.

23 September 2011

Salmon consumption during pregnancy encouraged

Oily fish provides omega-3 fatty acids that are considered to be important in the growth, development, and health of the fetus and newborn infant. This study show that by eating 2 portions of salmon per week, from week 20 of pregnancy until delivery, pregnant women would achieve the recommended minimum intake and increase their and their fetus' status of omega-3.

Miles EA, Noakes PS, Kremmyda LS, Vlachava M, Diaper ND, Rosenlund G, Urwin H, Yaqoob P, Rossary A, Farges MC, Vasson MP, Liaset B, Frøyland L, Helmersson J, Basu S, Garcia E, Olza J, Mesa MD, Aguilera CM, Gil A, Robinson SM, Inskip HM, Godfrey KM, Calder PC. The Salmon in Pregnancy Study: study design, subject characteristics, maternal fish and marine n-3 fatty acid intake, and marine n-3 fatty acid status in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug 17. [Epub ahead of print]

22 September 2011

High chocolate consumption associated with reduction in cardiovascular disease and stroke

A high consumption of chocolate appears to have health benefits according to the results of a recent systematic review which included 7 studies and 114,009 participants. The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. The authors conclude "Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders".

Buitrago-Lopez A, Sanderson J, Johnson L, Warnakula S, Wood A, Di Angelantonio E, Franco OH. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011 Aug 26;343:d4488.

21 September 2011

Chili nasal spray improves symptoms of nonallergic rhinitis

This study looked at the efficacy and safety of ICX72, a proprietary homeopathic preparation of Capsicum annum and Eucalyptol, versus placebo administered twice daily over 2 weeks in 42 subjects with nonallergic rhinitis. The ICX72 group showed improvement in nasal congestion, sinus pain, sinus pressure, and headache. The authors conclude "This is the first controlled trial demonstrating intranasal capsaicin, when used continuously over 2 weeks, rapidly and safely improves symptoms in rhinitis subjects with a significant nonallergic rhinitis component".

Bernstein JA, Davis BP, Picard JK, Cooper JP, Zheng S, Levin LS. A randomized, double-blind, parallel trial comparing capsaicin nasal spray with placebo in subjects with a significant component of nonallergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2011 Aug;107(2):171-8.

20 September 2011

High fiber intake may reduce breast cancer risk

In a recent meta-analysis, high dietary fiber intake was found to be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. The analysis included 10 prospective cohort studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer involving 16,848 cases and 712,195 participants. The results showed a 11% reduced risk of breast cancer for those with the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber intake. Further analysis showed that every 10 g per day increase in dietary fiber intake was associated with a 7% reduction in breast cancer risk. The authors conclude "This meta-analysis provides evidence of a significant inverse dose-response association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk".

Dong JY, He K, Wang P, Qin LQ. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep;94(3):900-5.

19 September 2011

Prunes improve bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

This study looked at the extent to which dried plum or prunes (Prunus domestica L.) reverses bone loss in postmenopausal women. Participants included 236 women, 1-10 years postmenopausal, not on hormone replacement therapy or any other prescribed medication known to influence bone metabolism. They were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups: dried plum (100 g daily) or dried apple (control). Participants received 500 mg calcium plus 400 IU (10 μg) vitamin D daily. The results found that dried plum significantly increased bone mineral density (BMD) of ulna and spine in comparison with dried apple. In comparison with corresponding baseline values, only dried plum significantly decreased serum levels of bone turnover markers including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b. The authors conclude "The findings of the present study confirmed the ability of dried plum in improving BMD in postmenopausal women in part due to suppressing the rate of bone turnover".

Hooshmand S, Chai SC, Saadat RL, Payton ME, Brummel-Smith K, Arjmandi BH. Comparative effects of dried plum and dried apple on bone in postmenopausal women. Br J Nutr. 2011 Sep;106(6):923-30.

18 September 2011

Coriander oil kills pathogenic bacteria

Recently published in the Journal of Medical Microbiology, Coriander oil has been found to exhibit antimicrobial and bactericidal activity. The results indicate that Coriander oil damages the cell membrane of bacteria leading to cell death. The authors conclude "The results obtained herein further encourage the use of coriander oil in antibacterial formulations due to the fact that coriander oil effectively kills pathogenic bacteria related to foodborne diseases and hospital infections".

Silva F, Ferreira S, Queiroz JA, Domingues FC. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) essential oil: its antibacterial activity and mode of action evaluated by flow cytometry. J Med Microbiol. 2011 Aug 23. [Epub ahead of print]

17 September 2011

Vitamin A significantly reduces mortality, morbidity and vision problems in children

In a systematic review of children aged 6 months to 5 years, vitamin A supplementation was found to be associated with large reductions in mortality, morbidity, and vision problems. Seventeen trials including 194,483 participants reported a 24% reduction in all cause mortality. Seven trials reported a 28% reduction in mortality associated with diarrhoea. Vitamin A supplementation was associated with a reduced incidence of diarrhoea, measles and vision problems, including night blindness and xerophthalmia. Three trials reported an increased risk of vomiting within the first 48 hours of supplementation. The authors suggest "vitamin A supplements should be given to all children at risk of deficiency, particularly in low and middle income countries".

Mayo-Wilson E, Imdad A, Herzer K, Yakoob MY, Bhutta ZA. Vitamin A supplements for preventing mortality, illness, and blindness in children aged under 5: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2011 Aug 25;343:d5094.

16 September 2011

Watching TV for 6 hours daily found to reduce life expectancy

In this study, researchers estimated the extent to which television (TV) viewing time reduces life expectancy in Australia. The results showed that compared with persons who watch no TV, those who spend a lifetime average of 6 hours per day watching TV can expect to live 4.8 years less. The authors conclude "TV viewing time may be associated with a loss of life that is comparable to other major chronic disease risk factors such as physical inactivity and obesity".

Veerman JL, Healy GN, Cobiac LJ, Vos T, Winkler EA, Owen N, Dunstan DW. Television viewing time and reduced life expectancy: a life table analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2011 [Epub ahead of print]

15 September 2011

Earlier first menstration in vitamin D deficient girls

In a study involving 242 girls, vitamin D deficiency was found to be associated with earlier menarche. A total of 57% of girls in the vitamin D-deficient group reached menarche during follow-up compared with 23% of girls in the vitamin D-sufficient group. The estimated mean ages at menarche in the same groups were 11.8 and 12.6 years, respectively.

Villamor E, Marin C, Mora-Plazas M, Baylin A. Vitamin D deficiency and age at menarche: a prospective study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Aug 10. [Epub ahead of print]

14 September 2011

Higher sodium-potassium ratio associated with increased cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality

In a prospective cohort study involving 12,267 US adults, researchers investigated estimated usual intakes of sodium and potassium as well as their ratio in relation to risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. The findings suggest that a higher sodium-potassium ratio is associated with significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, and higher sodium intake is associated with increased total mortality in the general US population.

Yang Q, Liu T, Kuklina EV, Flanders WD, Hong Y, Gillespie C, Chang MH, Gwinn M, Dowling N, Khoury MJ, Hu FB. Sodium and potassium intake and mortality among US adults: prospective data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(13):1183-91.

13 September 2011

Vitamin D found to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in men

In a study involving 74,272 women and 44,592 men, researchers evaluated the associations between both dietary and supplemental vitamin D and cardiovascular disease risk. The results showed that a higher total vitamin D intake (from foods and supplements) was associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease in men but not in women. The authors suggest "Further research is needed to confirm these findings and to elucidate a biological basis for potential sex differences".

Sun Q, Shi L, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Hu FB, Manson JE, Rexrode KM. Vitamin D intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US men and women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94(2):534-42.

12 September 2011

Replacing white rice with beans lowers metabolic syndrome risk

A high intake of white rice is associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In Costa Rica where the staple dietary pattern includes white rice and beans, researchers aimed to determine the association between intake of white rice and beans and metabolic syndrome and its components in 1879 adults without diabetes. The results revealed that an increase in daily servings of white rice was associated with increased systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and fasting glucose and lowered HDL cholesterol. An increase in servings of beans was associated with lower diastolic blood pressure. Substituting one serving of beans for one serving of white rice daily was associated with a 35% lower risk of the metabolic syndrome.

Mattei J, Hu FB, Campos H. A higher ratio of beans to white rice is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk factors in Costa Rican adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Sep;94(3):869-76.

11 September 2011

High alpha-linolenic acid and low linoleic acid intake associated with reduced depression risk

In a large prospective study involving 54,632 women, researchers examined the relationship between different omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids with clinical depression incidence. The results showed that  higher alpha-linolenic acid and lower linoleic acid intakes were associated with reduced risk of depression.

Lucas M, Mirzaei F, O'Reilly EJ, Pan A, Willett WC, Kawachi I, Koenen K, Ascherio A. Dietary intake of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and the risk of clinical depression in women: a 10-y prospective follow-up study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(6):1337-43.

10 September 2011

High homocysteine and low melatonin levels in ulcerative colitis patients

In a study involving 112 ulcerative colitis patients and 110 healthy controls, researchers measured plasma levels of homocysteine and melatonin. The results found levels of plasma homocysteine in ulcerative colitis patients were significantly higher and levels of plasma melatonin significantly lower than in healthy controls.

Chen M, Mei Q, Xu J, Lu C, Fang H, Liu X. Detection of melatonin and homocysteine simultaneously in ulcerative colitis. Clin Chim Acta. 2011 [Epub ahead of print]

09 September 2011

Low levels of coenzyme Q10 in septic shock patients

This study measured coenzyme Q10 levels in 14 septic shock patients enrolled in a randomized trial of simvastatin versus placebo. The results found coenzyme Q10 abnormally low in patients with septic shock compared to healthy controls. Lower levels of coenzyme Q10 were also associated with higher levels of inflammatory cytokines and vascular endothelial biomarkers though adjusting for LDL (carrier of coenzyme Q10) diminished this association and may explain this finding.

Donnino MW, Cocchi MN, Salciccioli JD, Kim D, Naini A, Buettner C, Akuthota P. Coenzyme Q10 levels are low and are associated with the inflammatory cascade in septic shock. Crit Care. 2011 Aug 9;15(4):R189.

08 September 2011

High vitamin A intake associated with reduced risk of breast cancer

In a meta-analysis which included 51 studies, high total vitamin A intake was shown to reduce the risk of breast cancer by 17% when compared with the lowest intake. The authors conclude "Our results indicate that both the total intake of vitamin A and retinol could reduce breast cancer risk".

Fulan H, Changxing J, Baina WY, Wencui Z, Chunqing L, Fan W, Dandan L, Dianjun S, Tong W, Da P, Yashuang Z. Retinol, vitamins A, C, and E and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis and meta-regression. Cancer Causes Control. 2011 [Epub ahead of print]

07 September 2011

Acupuncture found to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms in HIV patients

This study examined the effect of acupuncture and the relaxation response (RR) for treating gastrointestinal symptoms in HIV patients who were using highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Patients were randomised to recieve either; real acupuncture plus RR, sham acupuncture plus RR, real acupuncture plus health education or sham acupuncture plus health education. Participants listened to CDs with RR-eliciting instructions or health education while receiving acupuncture intervention. The results showed that real acupuncture plus RR improved gastrointestinal symptoms when given twice a week.

Chang BH, Sommers E. Acupuncture and the relaxation response for treating gastrointestinal symptoms in HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Acupunct Med. 2011 Sep;29(3):180-7.

06 September 2011

Smoking during pregnancy increases risk of birth defects

In a systematic review which analysed 172 research papers, smoking during pregnancy was found to increase the risk of the following birth defects: cardiovascular/heart defects, musculoskeletal defects, limb reduction defects, missing/extra digits, clubfoot, craniosynostosis, facial defects, eye defects, orofacial clefts, gastrointestinal defects, gastroschisis, anal atresia, hernia and undescended testes. The authors recommend that this data "be included in public health educational materials to encourage more women to quit before or during pregnancy".

Hackshaw A, Rodeck C, Boniface S. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and birth defects: a systematic review based on 173 687 malformed cases and 11.7 million controls. Hum Reprod Update. 2011 Sep-Oct;17(5):589-604.

05 September 2011

Mixed flavonoids, omega-3 and vitamin C reduces oxidative stress in athletes

This study looked at the effect of flavonoids, antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids on the oxidative stress caused by intense exercise. 39 athletes were randomly assigned to 3 groups: quercetin (1 g) plus vitamin C (1 g) (QC); quercetin (1 g), vitamin C (1 g), isoquercetin (400 mg), epigallocatechin gallate (30 mg), and omega-3 fatty acids (400 mg) (QFO); or placebo (P), taken each day for 2 weeks before and during 3 days of cycling at 57% Wmax for 3 hours. In the QC & QFO groups plasma oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes) was found to be lower immediately postexercise compared to placebo.

McAnulty SR, Nieman DC, McAnulty LS, Lynch WS, Jin F, Henson DA. Effect of Mixed Flavonoids, n-3 Fatty Acids, and Vitamin C on Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Capacity Before and After Intense Cycling. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2011;21(4):328-37.

04 September 2011

Hide your vegetables

Incorporating puréed vegetables into meals is a great way to reduce daily energy intakes and increase vegetable intake. In a recent study, 20 men and 21 women were given varying amounts of puréed vegetables added to their meals. Despite the decreased energy intake, those consuming large amounts of puréed vegetables rated their hunger, fullness and palatability similarly to those comsuming no added vegetables.

Blatt AD, Roe LS, Rolls BJ. Hidden vegetables: an effective strategy to reduce energy intake and increase vegetable intake in adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(4):756-63.

03 September 2011

Fruit, vegetables and vitamin C help protect against effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pregnancy

Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during pregnancy is known to increase oxidative stress, which may influence pregnancy outcomes and health of the child. This study investigated whether fruit and vegetable intake modifies the relationship between exposure to PAHs and oxidative stress status during pregnancy. The results showed that an adequate maternal intake of fruit, vegetables and vitamin C were beneficial to defend against the oxidative stress associated with exposure to PAHs in pregnant women.

Kim H, Hwang JY, Ha EH, Park H, Ha M, Lee SH, Hong YC, Chang N. Fruit and vegetable intake influences the association between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and a marker of oxidative stress in pregnant women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 [Epub ahead of print]

02 September 2011

Glucosamine found to reduce lung cancer risk

Inflammation plays an important role in lung carcinogenesis. In this study researchers looked at glucosamine and chondroitin, which have anti-inflammatory properties, and whether their use alters lung cancer risk. 76,904 participants aged 50-76 years were queried on their use of glucosamine and chondroitin, over the 10 years prior to baseline, and categorized as nonuser, low use <4 days/week or <3 years, or high use ≥4 days/week and ≥3 years. The results showed that high 10-year use of glucosamine but not chondroitin was associated with a reduction in lung cancer risk. The association with glucosamine was limited to adenocarcinoma and was not modified by NSAID use or smoking status.

Brasky TM, Lampe JW, Slatore CG, White E. Use of glucosamine and chondroitin and lung cancer risk in the VITamins And Lifestyle (VITAL) cohort. Cancer Causes Control. 2011 Sep;22(9):1333-42.

01 September 2011

Probiotic during pregnancy may lower risk of childhood eczema

In a meta-analysis of randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, researchers assessed the impact of probiotics intake during pregnancy on the development of eczema in children. A total of 7 trials were found which showed a significant risk reduction for atopic eczema in children aged 2-7 years by the administration of probiotics during pregnancy. However, this effect was only significant for lactobacilli, but not for a mixture of various bacterial strains as probiotics.

Doege K, Grajecki D, Zyriax BC, Detinkina E, Zu Eulenburg C, Buhling KJ. Impact of maternal supplementation with probiotics during pregnancy on atopic eczema in childhood - a meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2011 [Epub ahead of print]